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How Does AFM Work?

AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) is possibly the most versatile and powerful type of microscopy technology available for studying samples at the nanoscale. It is versatile because a budget atomic force microscope can not only image in three-dimensional topography, but it also provides various types of surface measurements to the needs of engineers and scientists. It is powerful because an AFM can easily generate images at atomic resolution with angstrom scale resolution height information, with minimum sample preparation. 
AFM Principle- Surface SensingAn AFM uses a cantilever with a very sharp tip to scan over a sample surface. As the tip approaches the surface, the close-range, attractive force between the surface and the tip causes the cantilever to deflect towards the surface. However, as the cantilever is brought even closer to the surface, such that the tip makes contact with it, increasingly repulsive force takes over and causes the cantilever to deflect away from the surface.
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What are Electrical Feedthroughs?

Electrical feedthroughs are components which enable the transfer of electrical power into or out of a hermetic chamber. Electrical feedthroughs consist of metal-ceramic-joints whereas the ceramic serves as an electrical insulator between the conductor and the connection flange. In addition to providing leak-tightness in high and ultra-high vacuum, many feedthroughs have to be resistant to high or cryogenic temperatures, high pressure and aggressive chemicals.
Coaxial FeedthroughsCoaxial feedthroughs consist of two concentric conductor paths which are electrically isolated from each other by an alumina or glass-ceramic insulator in between. The inner pin-shaped conductor serves as current-carrying contact and is surrounded by a tubular outside conductor, which is usually at ground potential ("grounded shield"). The outer conductor shields the inner conductor from electromagnetic interference effects coming from outside. Coaxial feedthroughs can be used universally and are part…

Home Heating Oil - Best Heating Option

If you’re deciding on what type of heating you want for your home, keep reading to find out why home heating oil Shropshire is the best option for you. When reworking the heating system in your home, or simply planning out a newly-built home, weighing the pros and cons of different heating options can be tough.It used to be simple, you could throw some wood in the fireplace and be good to go. Now we are bombarded with hundreds of brands, systems, and pieces of information that tell us one is better than the other.For a number of reasons that we’ll go over, we advocate that oil is the best home heating fuel option. That isn’t to say that there are pros and cons to the others, because there certainly are. This article will go over some of the fine details in home heating options to help you choose the best one for your home.
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Keeping Your Farm Fuelled

For local farms, keeping track of fuel levels can often fall to the bottom of the packed priority list - being busy out on the fields and taking care of livestock is much more important. However, running out of fuel on the farm can be a complete disaster, it can lead to machinery being parked up and unable to be used which can result in daily operations coming to a grinding halt. 
There are a number of different ways in which you can prevent your fuel tank from running dry, making your fuel go further and to ensure that your farm has a reliable supply of fuel when it needs it most. Here are some top tips to keep your farm fully fuelled throughout the year. 
Work with a Trusted Local SupplierA reliable supply of road diesel, red diesel and heating oil is the lifeblood of a working farm. However, demand for the different fuels shifts with the seasons, so finding a fuel supplier who understands this is key. Oil distributors Shropshire work closely with local farms in order to provide them …

NAP-XPS: Surface Chemistry Analysis

NAP-XPS is a less traditional form of XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), it allows samples to be analysed at relatively high pressures, for example, at greater than 2500 Pa. By using the NAP-XPS, the XPS can effectively probe moderately volatile liquids, biological samples, porous materials or even polymeric materials that outgas significantly.XPS and UPS (ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy) are used to analyse the surface chemistry of a material. XPS spectra are obtained by illuminating the sample surface with monochromatic x-rays and eventually measuring the photo emitted electrons. With XPS, the elemental composition and the chemical state of the detected elements can be determined quantitatively in the surface region with an information depth of up to 10nm. Many NAP-XPS system designs allow for investigations of a large variety of different samples, including insulating samples, gases, liquids and their interfaces that are not accessible through the standard XPS systems. …

What is AFM-IR?

AFM-IR, or atomic force microscopy based infrared spectroscopy is a form of chemical imaging which creates a visual image of components which make up chemicals, which uses extremely high powered microscopes. This is typically done with a radiation source to illuminate the sample which is being observed, as well as the usage of an AFM probe which detects thermal expansions from the radiation source. Also used is a high-powered imaging system to translate the probe’s movements into an image, and finally a detector array to categorise. AFM-IR places results in a three-dimensional block, which spans x and y dimensions.

AFM-IR has enormous application in a whole variety of fields. Whether it is chemistry, biology, medicine, pharmaceutical agricultural or industrial use, the ability to analyse substances and work our properties is vital. AFM-IR has quickly become one of the most powerful and efficient ways to characterise material surfaces, especially at nanoscale resolution. Nanoscale resol…

What is Electron Spectroscopy?

Electron Spectroscopy for chemical analysis, or the ESCA systemfor short, is a science all to itself and branches from quantum mechanics. It is not a new science by any means, and has roots dating back to 1905 when Albert Einstein won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his interpretation, using quantum mechanics, of the photoelectric effect. This research facilitated the discovery of Heinrich Hertz and Max Planch that light indeed travels in an electromagnetic wavelength, as well of the discover of discrete energy portions. Nowadays, these discrete energy portions are named “quantum”, and all aspects of quantum physics is said to come from this truly ground breaking and pioneering research.

You might wonder just how quantum physics factors into chemical analysis, and the answer is that it affects chemical analysis just as much as it affects all of the sciences – quite a lot. This discovery assisted the progression of practically all of the sciences, and for chemical analysis in particula…